Crude oil is simply raw, unprocessed oil pumped from the ground. Crude oil is formed, just like other fossil fuels such as coal, over the course of approximately 300 million years by the earth placing immense pressures on large deposits of dead organic material. Because the crude lies buried far under a thick cover of rock and minerals, oil companies spend fortunes on armies of geologists in order to try to find where these massive deposits are buried. They tend to be in remote areas – hundreds of miles out to sea or in harsh climates as incongruous as the frigid arctic and the searing desert. As a result, transporting the crude oil to a refinery where it can be processed becomes a logistical challenge, but one that can be tackled by using the very same approach utilized over a century ago: pipelines.